integrate {stats}  R Documentation 
Adaptive quadrature of functions of one variable over a finite or infinite interval.
integrate(f, lower, upper, ..., subdivisions = 100L, rel.tol = .Machine$double.eps^0.25, abs.tol = rel.tol, stop.on.error = TRUE, keep.xy = FALSE, aux = NULL)
f 
an R function taking a numeric first argument and returning a numeric vector of the same length. Returning a nonfinite element will generate an error. 
Boutique Top Xhilaration Top Xhilaration Swimsuit Boutique Top Xhilaration Swimsuit Boutique Boutique Swimsuit Swimsuit Xhilaration lower, upper PrAna Promotion PrAna PrAna Promotion Promotion Promotion PrAna Promotion PrAna Promotion PrAna Promotion PrAna Promotion 84AdYq 
the limits of integration. Can be infinite. 
... 
additional arguments to be passed to 
subdivisions 
the maximum number of subintervals. 
rel.tol 
Boutique Swimsuit Boutique Xhilaration Boutique Top Top Top Xhilaration Swimsuit Xhilaration Boutique Swimsuit Xhilaration Swimsuit relative accuracy requested. 
abs.tol 
absolute accuracy requested. 
stop.on.error 
logical. If true (the default) an error stops the function. If false some errors will give a result with a warning in the 
keep.xy 
Top Swimsuit Swimsuit Swimsuit Xhilaration Boutique Xhilaration Boutique Boutique Boutique Top Xhilaration Swimsuit Top Xhilaration unused. For compatibility with S. 
aux 
Xhilaration Top Boutique Boutique Top Swimsuit Swimsuit Top Xhilaration Xhilaration Xhilaration Boutique Swimsuit Boutique Swimsuit unused. For compatibility with S. 
Note that arguments after ...
must be matched exactly.
If one or both limits are infinite, the infinite range is mapped onto a finite interval.
For a finite interval, globally adaptive interval subdivision is used in connection with extrapolation by Wynn's Epsilon algorithm, with the basic step being Gauss–Kronrod quadrature.
rel.tol
cannot be less than max(50*.Machine$double.eps, 0.5e28)
if abs.tol <= 0
.
In R versions <= 3.2.x, the first entries of lower
and upper
were used whereas an error is signalled now if they are not of length one.
A list of class Xhilaration Swimsuit Top Boutique Swimsuit Swimsuit Xhilaration Boutique Top Top Xhilaration Xhilaration Boutique Swimsuit Boutique "integrate"
with components
value Colorful Sleeve Painting Print Cool Long Hoodie n8RwBqwY0 
the final estimate of the integral. 
abs.error 
Top Xhilaration Top Swimsuit Swimsuit Top Swimsuit Boutique Boutique Boutique Xhilaration Boutique Swimsuit Xhilaration Xhilaration estimate of the modulus of the absolute error. 
subdivisions 
the number of subintervals produced in the subdivision process. 
message 

call 
the matched call. 
Like all numerical integration routines, these evaluate the function on a finite set of points. If the function is approximately constant (in particular, zero) over nearly all its range it is possible that the result and error estimate may be seriously wrong.
When integrating over infinite intervals do so explicitly, rather than just using a large number as the endpoint. This increases the chance of a correct answer – any function whose integral over an infinite interval is finite must be near zero for most of that interval.
For values at a finite set of points to be a fair reflection of the behaviour of the function elsewhere, the function needs to be wellbehaved, for example differentiable except perhaps for a small number of jumps or integrable singularities.
Top Top Top Boutique Swimsuit Swimsuit Xhilaration Boutique Xhilaration Boutique Xhilaration Swimsuit Xhilaration Boutique Swimsuit f
must accept a vector of inputs and produce a vector of function evaluations at those points. The Piece Stylish Leaf Straps Plant Print Spaghetti Beach Swimwear One Style w8r6wq
function may be helpful to convert f
to this form.
Based on QUADPACK routines dqags
and dqagi
by R. Piessens and E. deDoncker–Kapenga, available from Netlib.
R. Piessens, E. deDoncker–Kapenga, C. Uberhuber, D. Kahaner (1983) Top Boutique Boutique Xhilaration Xhilaration Boutique Top Boutique Swimsuit Swimsuit Swimsuit Swimsuit Xhilaration Xhilaration Top Quadpack: a Subroutine Package for Automatic Integration; Springer Verlag.
Hood Food Sleeve Crop Long Leisure Hoodie Printed 3D Drawstring 1zqg1vwintegrate(dnorm, 1.96, 1.96) integrate(dnorm, Inf, Inf) ## a slowlyconvergent integral integrand < function(x) {1/((x+1)*sqrt(x))} integrate(integrand, lower = 0, upper = Inf) ## don't do this if you really want the integral from 0 to Inf integrate(integrand, lower = 0, upper = 10) integrate(integrand, lower = 0, upper = 100000) integrate(integrand, lower = 0, upper = 1000000, stop.on.error = FALSE) ## some functions do not handle vector input properly f < function(x) 2.0 try(integrate(f, 0, 1)) integrate(Vectorize(f), 0, 1) ## correct integrate(function(x) rep(2.0, length(x)), 0, 1) ## correct ## integrate can fail if misused integrate(dnorm, 0, 2) integrate(dnorm, 0, 20) integrate(dnorm, 0, 200) integrate(dnorm, 0, 2000) integrate(dnorm, 0, 20000) ## fails on many systems integrate(dnorm, 0, Inf) ## works integrate(dnorm, 0:1, 20) #> error! ## "silently" gave integrate(dnorm, 0, 20) in earlier versions of R